International Journal of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
  (Print) 2319 - 4537
(Online) 2319 - 4545
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   International Journal of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
IJEMS,Volume 11 (2017), Issue : 1 (January - June), 2017    Collapse all | Expand all
1. ANOVA a New Tool for Failure Analysis
Author : Saurabh Pradhan, Dilbagh Bhardwaj and Vijay Singh
Keyword : Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), Risk priority number (RPN), Risk priority code (RPC).

Volume: 11,Issue: 1,PP: 1-12,Year: (2017)
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) gives a priortize list of failure modes using Risk priority number (RPN). The RPN is calculated by the multiplication of severity, occurrence and detection rankings. The most critically debated disadvantage of this approach is that various sets of these three indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. This research paper seeks to address the drawbacks in traditional FMEA and to propose a new approach to overcome these shortcomings. The Risk Priority Code (RPC) is used to prioritize failure modes, when two or more failure modes have the same RPN. A new method is proposed to prioritize failure modes, when there is a disagreement in ranking scale for severity, occurrence and detection. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to compare means of RPN values. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical analysis package is used to analyze the data. The results presented are based on two case studies. It is found that the proposed new methodology/approach resolves the limitations of traditional FMEA approach.
2. Image Security System Using Compression Techniques
Author : Vijiya Dwivedi & Anurag Sharma
Keyword : Lossless Images, Image Compression, Steganography, SPHIT, LSB

Volume: 11,Issue: 1,PP: 13-23,Year: (2017)
Data is any type of stored digital information. Security is about the protection of assets. Data security refers to protective digital privacy measures that are applied to prevent unauthorized access to computers, databases and websites. Cryptography is evergreen and developments. Cryptography protects users by providing functionality for the encryption of data and authentication of other users. Compression is the process of reducing the number of bits or bytes needed to represent a given set of data. It allows saving more data. The project aims to implement various cryptography algorithms for data security. The data will be first compressed using compression technique and then encryption technique will be applied. If encryption and compression are done at the same time then it takes less processing time and more speed. This paper presents a new methodology which performs both lossless compression and secure storage of images. The compression is based on SPHIT Algorithm and it is lossless in nature. Set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is an image compression algorithm that exploits the inherent similarities across the sub bands in a wavelet decomposition of an image. Prior to the compression, a framework is presented which ensures the secure storage of images on basis of division of knowledge. Finally, Least Significant Bit Embeddings (LSB) are a general stenographic technique that may be employed to embed data into a variety of digital media, but one of the most studied applications is using LSB embedding to hide one image inside another. QR code is used for efficient indexing of the secure images. Thus, this paper presents compression specific SPHIT language, compression-decompression algorithms, framework ensuring security and indexing, and test results of the methodology. The developed method is tested on general images searched on Google search and the performance metrics is calculated.
3. Estimating Non-Smooth Functional Using Non-Parametric Procedure in the Hilbert Sample Space
Keyword : Nonparametric, Non-smooth functional, Hilbert Sample space

Volume: 11,Issue:1,PP: 24-33,Year:(2017)
One of the problems in statistical inference is that of estimating functional. A functional is a mathematical relation that maps two or more functions in one number. They are either smooth or non-smooth. The smoothness properties of functional determine the quality of estimation. However, non-smooth functional lack some degree of properties traditionally relied upon in estimation. Lack of these properties highlights the reason why standard techniques fail to give sharp results. In this paper, an estimator for an arbitrary non-smooth functional is proposed in the nonparametric set-up using robust stochastic Hilbert sample spaces. The estimator is based on the Mini Max criterion where lower and upper bounds are constructed. However, while working in the context of Mini Max estimation, the lower bounds are most important. The approximation theory is used to construct an estimator that is asymptotically sharp Mini Max when the means are bounded. The procedure used allows analysis and presentation data at hand without making any assumption about the underlying distribution. Therefore, the predictions do not depend on whether or not the underlying distribution is normal
4. Nonzero Lie Brackets of Third Order Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation
Author : O.P. Miginjo, T. J. O. Aminer and N. Omolo Ongati
Keyword : Infinitesimal generators, Prolongation, Lie symmetry, Ordinary differential equation, determining equation.

Lie symmetry analysis of Ordinary Differential Equation can be used to obtain exact solution of the equation of the form F(x, y, y ' y '', y ''') = 0 . In this paper we use Lie Symmetry analysis approach to obtain the nonzero Lie brackets of a nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation for heat conduction. The Lie Brackets obtained forms Lie solvable algebra that can be used to reduce the equation to lower order.
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