International Journal of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
  (Print) 2319 - 4537
(Online) 2319 - 4545
  List of Volumes
Volume 1(2012)
 Issue: 1(January - June), 2012
Volume 2(2012)
 Issue: 1 (July - Dec), 2012
Volume 3(2013)
 Issue : 1(January - June), 2013
Volume 4(2013)
 Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2013
Volume 5(2014)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2014
Volume 6 (2014)
 Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2014
Volume 7 (2015)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2015
Volume 8 (2015)
 Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2015
Volume 9 (2016)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2016
Volume 10 (2016)
 Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2016
Volume 11 (2017)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2017
Volume 12 (2017)
 Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2017
Volume 13 (2018)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2018
Volume 14 (2018)
  Issue : 1 (July - Dec.) 2018
Volume 15 (2019)
 Issue : 1 (January - June), 2019
   International Journal of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
IJEMS,Volume 13 (2018), Issue : 1 (January - June), 2018    Collapse all | Expand all
1. Nonzero Lie Brackets of Third Order Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation
Author : O.P. Miginjo, T. J. O. Aminer and N. Omolo Ongati
Keyword : Infinitesimal generators, Prolongation, Lie symmetry, Ordinary differential equation, determining equation.

Lie symmetry analysis of Ordinary Differential Equation can be used to obtain exact solution of the equation of the form F(x, y, y ' y '', y ''') = 0 . In this paper we use Lie Symmetry analysis approach to obtain the nonzero Lie brackets of a nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation for heat conduction. The Lie Brackets obtained forms Lie solvable algebra that can be used to reduce the equation to lower order.
2. Estimation of Parameters of Mean Reverting Demand for Capital Shares
Author : Omondi J. Ouno
Keyword : Parameters, Long term mean quantity of demand, Speed of reversion, volatility and discretization.

This paper aims at estimating the parameters in a mean reverting process by the application of a given historical data. In this paper I have considered the demand for capital shares in Nairobi Stock exchange as a process which is mean reverting and hence the resulting mean reverting model for quantity of demand has parameters to be estimated. The parameters to be estimated from the model are the long term mean of quantity of demand, the rate of reversion and the volatility. The method of least squares regression has been used to estimate the long term mean of quantity of demand and speed of reversion. The estimation of volatility has been achieved by the application of a method suggested by Skorodumov in 2008. In both cases results have been obtained without testing their accuracy.
3. Modeling of Market Equilibrium Price for Nairobi Security Exchange With Respect to Demand and Supply of Shares
Author : Omondi J. Ouno
Keyword : Demand and supply functions, Dividend payment, Exogenous and Endogenous variables, simultaneous equations models, structural and reduced form equations.

Nairobi security exchange (NSE) is a success story in trading capital shares and this has made it attract many players both locally and internationally. It is interesting to note that these players do not have a reasonable mathematical model which can be used to predict equilibrium prices for their stock. Such a prediction can be achieved if there is a model for market equilibrium price for different capital shares. In this paper a market equilibrium price model is developed to help market players predict equilibrium price for capital shares. This model has been developed by the use of one of the methods commonly applied in estimating parameters of simultaneous equations models. This is the two stage least squares (2 SLS) method.
4. Demand Dynamics for Capital Shares in Nairobi Security Exchange
Author : Omondi J. Ouno
Keyword : Demand dynamics, Mean reversion, Unit root test, degree of mean reversion.

In this paper I present the notion that the quantity of demand for capital shares follows a Geometric Brownian motion with mean reversion. This is because when the quantity of demand is taken over time and the values observed are transformed by taking the natural logarithms for each quantity of demand; the transformed quantities of demand carries properties similar to those of price. Properties like lognormal distribution, random walk process, mean reversion etc will be obeyed. A number of scholars have proved this fact. They include Egan (2007) who observes that normal and lognormal distributions are the two mostly used distributions in the analysis of financial returns and prices and that the latter gives accurate distribution of prices. Another scholar is Liang (2003) who showed that demand for a commodity is a random walk process and can be modeled as a Geometric Brownian motion. As can be realized, demand and price have similar properties and that is the reason this paper discusses another property obeyed by quantity of demand which is considered over time. This is the property of mean reversion.
5. Mathematical Analysis of Carbon Pollution in Roads with Ventilated Embankments using Godunov FVM
Author : J. O. Awino, T. J. O. Aminer, T. M. Onyango and N. B. Okelo
Keyword : Advection, Diffusion, Convection, Finite Volume Method

Kenyan Road transport currently accounts for about 78% of the total carbon emission in the country, a percentage that is lately and steadily rising causing enormous scientific concern. Consequently, efficient road design supporting sustainable low carbon growth in road sections by provision of suction pumps and fans in road tunnels are required to help reduce the level of carbon concentration on Kenyan modern roads especially Thika superhighway. It has been proven by scientists that high carbon concentration along roads especially with tunnels form main contributor of various respiratory ailments for people trapped in traffic jam or trekking adjacent to roads for a long period of time. Significant mathematical analysis of this pollution problem on Kenyan roads have not been undertaken sufficiently in the past, but there is evidence that flow velocities and diffusion of vehicle pollutants is enhanced by roads with tunnels, embankments, interchanges and underpasses. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to model carbon dispersion and advection in sections of roads with tunnels to propagate installation of ventilation with forced convection in order to reduce carbon pollutants concentration along the motorway. The methodology involves use of Godunov Finite Volume Method (GFVM) to analyse pollution in roads with ventilated embankments.
6. Secure Integrated Financial Management Information System to Enhance Effectiveness of Public Procurement Services in Public Hospitals in Kenya
Author : Margaret Afwande, Samuel Mbugua, Juma Kilwake
Keyword : IFMIS, Technology Architecture, Logical Access Controls.

Integrated Financial Management Information System, is an enterprise resource planning application that captures all functional processes and relevant financial flows within public expenditure management. IFMIS was adopted by the public hospitals to promote efficiency, effectiveness, accountability, transparency, security of data management and comprehensive reporting. However the public hospitals have lost millions of money through scandals and this has compromised service delivery to the public. To effectively manage provision of adequate medical resources in the public hospitals, the technology architecture of IFMIS ought to meet the software quality model sub-factors such as logical access controls, session management and services and data management outlined by ISO/IEC 25010. This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of IFMIS and come up with an enhanced technical architecture of IFMIS that will streamline procurement procedures in public hospitals and improve provision of quality healthcare.
7. Detection of Eye Diseases Using Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation
Author : Simran Tandon and Shalini Nath
Keyword : Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Lesions, Cotton Wools, Exudates

There is an aggregating interest in development of the automatic medical diagnosis systems because of the advancement in the computer technology. The knowledge regarding health and disease is required at higher rate for the accurate medical diagnosis. In Developing countries, Most of the working age populace is affected from eye diseases. Retinal image analysis plays an important role in medical diagnosis. Most common eye diseases are Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma, Retinal Detachment, Retinal Disorder, Age Related macular degeneration etc are of much significance today. Around 90% of the people are affected by Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common problems that may lead to blindness and it can be prevented or cured if detected at the earlier stage. The presence of DR can be detected by its different symptoms; the most distinctive is the presence of cotton wool and exudates which are bright lesions in the eye. It is necessary to detect the presence of bright lesions. They play a very important role in the accurate detection and classification of cotton wools and exudates. This project proposes a computer aided system which can be used for detection error rate, epoch value in the lesion area and glaucomic area in an eye. The project presents various algorithms on fundus retinal images by following steps like preprocessing, lesion detection, features extraction using fuzzy logic and using neural network. Neural network uses Back Propagation Algorithm which is the most efficient algorithm to deduct the results accurately. The developed method is tested on standard benchmark STARE [13] database.
8. Evaluation of Guidelines for Security threats in Mobile-Phone Banking
Author : Ngomeh Augustine Wafula Prince, Kelvin Kabeti Omieno, Samuel Mbuguah
Keyword : Mobile Phone, Banking, Security, Threats, Guidelines

Globally, banking institutions are using mobile phones to provide financial services to reach those with or without bank accounts. However mobile phones do suffer from security threats when used for banking purposes these threats become more critical. The purpose of the research was to investigate the use of user guideline as a tool to mitigate against security threats in mobile phone banking. The objectives of the research were to determine the security threats in the mobile banking, to identify the existing guidelines in mitigating threats in mobile phone banking and to design improved user guideline to minimize the security threats in mobile phone banking. This research adopted a descriptive survey design; Qualitative approach was used in objective two which was concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behavior. Generally, the technique of focus group interviews and depth interviews was used in identifying the use of existing guidelines in mitigating mobile phone security threats. In objective three Simulation approach was used, which involved the construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated. This permitted an observation of the dynamic behavior of a system (or its sub-system) under controlled conditions. Data collection tools included use of interviews and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis that included frequency percentage mean and mode. This research was expected to provide improved user guidelines that will help in the reduction of the security threats posed in mobile phone banking. The research was expected to further suggest the challenges of the existing guidelines in use to those of adoption of the designed use guidelines.
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